I am attaching my project topic, the references, the literature review, and all instructions.

Please do NOT take this project unless you can do it. Please message with “pink rabbits” if you have read over all the material and can do the project. Thank you so much!My Project Topic

I was thinking of studying the culture of Lithuania to see how it differs from my household. Specifically, I want to look at the foods commonly eaten, their religious beliefs, how they spend time, how their family dynamics are and their forms of transportation. This is important to me because my grandma was from Lithuania. I am 50% Lithuanian. I loved her, but I didn’t know her well and because she fled from the war, she was hesitant to talk about her home country because it contained too many painful memories. I plan to use the internet and secondary research. I don’t really have a way to do participant observation, as it’s in another country.

References:

https://go-gale-com.hope.whatcom.edu/ps/i.do?p=WHIC&u=bell29790&id=GALE%7CCX3652100265&v=2.1&it=r

https://search-credoreference-com.hope.whatcom.edu/content/entry/galewrp/lithuania/0

https://fod-infobase-com.hope.whatcom.edu/p_ViewVideo.aspx?xtid=185586&loid=557815&tScript=0

https://online-culturegrams-com.hope.whatcom.edu/world/world_country.php?cid=92&cn=Lithuania

https://www.oecd.org/statistics/Better-Life-Initiative-country-note-Lithuania.pdf

https://www.oecdbetterlifeindex.org/countries/lithuania/

https://www.everyculture.com/Ja-Ma/Lithuania.html

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WH9mTk1mxkI�

LITHUANIA
Republic of Lithuania

Lietuvos RespublikaLietuv os Respublika

CAPITAL: Vilnius FLAG: Three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red. AN-
THEM: Tautiška Giesme (The National Song) MONETARY UNIT: The euro replaced the Lithuanian lita
(LTL) as the official currency on 1 January 2015. The euro is divided into 100 cents. There are coins in
denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents and 1 euro and 2 euros. There are notes of 5, 10, 20,
50, 100, 200, and 500 euros. €1 = $1.1137 ($1 = €0.897717) as of August 2016. WEIGHTS AND
MEASURES: The metric system is in force. HOLIDAYS: New Year’s Day, 1 January; Independence Day,
16 February; Restoration of Lithuanian Statehood, 11 March; Statehood Day of Lithuania, 6 July;
National Day of Hope and Mourning (All Soul’s Day), 1 November; Christmas, 25–26 December.
Movable holidays include Easter and Mother’s Day. TIME: 2 p.m. = noon GMT

1 LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT

Lithuania is located in eastern Europe between Latvia and
Poland, bordering the Baltic Sea. Comparatively, it is slightly
larger than the state of West Virginia, with a total area of 65,200
sq km (25,174 sq mi). Lithuania shares boundaries with Latvia
on the N and NE, Belarus on the S and SE, Poland on the SW,
Russia-Kaliningrad Oblast on the W, and the Baltic Sea on the
NW. Lithuania’s land boundary length totals 1,639 km (1,018
mi). Its coastline is 90 km (56 mi).

Lithuania’s capital city, Vilnius, is located in the southeast-
ern part of the country.

2 TOPOGRAPHY

The topography of Lithuania features a central lowland terrain
with many scattered small lakes and fertile soil. Moderate
highlands lie to the east and south, with a few hilly regions in
the west. The main hill regions are the Zemaical Uplands of the
northwest and the Baltic Highlands of the southeast. The high-
est point in the country is Aukstojas, located in the Medininkai
Highlands. It has an elevation of 294 m (965 ft). The lowest
point is at sea level (Baltic Sea).

There are about 758 rivers in the country that are longer
than 10 km (6.2 mi), but very few are navigable. The Neman,
which cuts through the center of the country from Belarus to
the Baltic Sea, is the longest river, with a length of 936 km
(582 mi). There are more than 3,000 lakes in the country,
most of which are in the eastern central regions. The largest
is Lake Druksiai, which is located on the northeastern
border with Belarus and covers an area of 44.5 sq km (17.2 sq
mi).

3 CLIMATE

Lithuania’s climate is transitional between maritime and
continental, which means it has wet, moderate winters and
summers. January temperatures average -5ºC (23ºF); the mean
temperature in July is 18°C (64.4°F). Rainfall averages from 49
cm (19 in) to 85 cm (33 in) depending on location.

4 FLORA AND FAUNA

Lithuania is located in the mixed forest zone. The country’s
vegetation is a mixture of coniferous, broadleaf woodlands,
arctic, and steppe species. The country has rabbit, fox, red deer,
roe deer,Lithuania
from Worldmark Encyclopedia of Religious Practices

View article on Credo

POPULATION 3,043,429

ROMAN CATHOLIC 77.2 percent

ORTHODOX CHRISTIAN 4.1 percent

PROTESTANT (COMBINED) 1.1 percent

OLD BELIEVERS 0.8 percent

NEOPAGAN 0.2 percent

MUSLIM 0.1 percent

JEWISH < 0.1 percent OTHER 0.2 percent NOT REPORTED 10.1 percent NOT AFFILIATED 6.1 percent Country Overview Introduction Lithuania is a small and predominantly Roman Catholic country located on the Baltic Sea. It shares a border with Latvia to the north, Belarus on the east, Poland to the south, and the Kaliningrad region of Russia to the southwest. Lithuania has a primarily flat terrain, and much of the territory is composed of workable land and forests. Its total land area is 24,200 square miles (62,680 square kilometers). Lithuania was one of the last areas of Europe to be Christianized. In 1385 Jogaila (c. 1351–1434), grand duke of Lithuania, agreed to submit his nation to Catholic baptism when he accepted the crown of Poland. For several centuries, Lithuania and Poland were united as one kingdom, and the Catholic Church subsequently became by far the largest and most influential religious organization in Lithuania. The Polish-Lithuanian state was partitioned in 1795, and most of the territory of present-day Lithuania fell under Russian rule. Lithuania was again established as an independent country in 1918. It was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940, and from 1940 to 1990 it was one of the Soviet Union’s 15 republics. Since the reestablishment of its independence in 1990, Lithuania is a parliamentary democracy. It became a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the European Union in 2004. https://mywcc.whatcom.edu/OnlineResources/LibraryDatabases.aspx? DirectURL=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/galewrp/lithuania/0 https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/galewrp/lithuania/0 https://search.credoreference.com/content/title/galewrp https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/galewrp/lithuania/0 https://mywcc.whatcom.edu/OnlineResources/LibraryDatabases.aspx?DirectURL=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/galewrp/lithuania/0 Lithuanians and Poles make up 84.1 and 6.6 percent, respectively, of the country’s population, and both mainly profess Catholicism. Russians comprise about 5.8 percent of the population, with the majority being Russian Orthodox and the historical minority Old Believers. Russian Orthodox believers are mainly concentrated in cities, while Old Believers have traditionally lived in both city and countryside communities primarily in the eastern part of the country. Lithuania also has Evangelical Reformed (in northern Lithuania) and Evangelical Lutheran (in southwestern Lithuania) minorities. Religious Tolerance Lithuania does not have a state religion. The constitution guarantees freedom of conscience and religion, and there are amicable relations between the various faiths. The constitution [MUSIC] Every January, this band of rugged Russians brave the freezing waters of the Moscow river. >> The Russian soul is strong.

Nobody can conquer us.

We are loved by God.

Let’s go for a swim.

>> This is a madness.

>> [COUGH].

>> Your cough will go if you take a dip.

[MUSIC] >> In my journey around the world, I’ve seen how important religion continues to be in people’s lives.

With ten faiths to go, I’m traveling throughout my own continent of Europe.

I thought it might be a tale of religion as a spent force.

As I discover, it’s also the story of the renaissance of spirituality, often in the most unexpected places.

From the icebound wilderness of Northern Norway.

My journey will take me through Eastern Europe, Russia, and on into Italy.

Sunshine, thank you, God.

I’ll be visiting a European Buddhist state.

[MUSIC] Huge underground temples, nature-worshipping shamans, and hardcore Benedictines.

These are the SAS of monks.

[MUSIC] >> Jingle bells.

Jingle bells.

Jingle all the way.

What fun it is to ride- >> I’m starting my journey in Norway.

Where I’m meeting the enigmatic leader of a faith that, every year, just gets more and more popular.

>> Mr. Claus?

>> [LAUGH] Hello, please come in.

Hello, there.

>> Hello, Santa.

>> Welcome, have a seat.

What’s your name?

>> My name is Peter.

>> Peter. >> Yes.

>> And where you from?

>> I’m from Sussex in England.

>> Sussex in England.

We have quite a few visitors from Sussex in England.

>> I know that you bring joy, but have you ever thought you also serve represent really the sort of soft side of materialism?

And that’s a good point.

That’s a good point.

Yeah, I think more softness is needed.

But what do you think?

>> I think your beard looks very soft.

>> So does your hair.

[LAUGH] So you’ve been good this year?

>> I was hoping you were going to tell me that.

>> [LAUGH] >> I decided to get out of the Santa’s confessional only to find myself in the Santa shop surrounded by Santa icons
and Santa devotees rushing to buy them.

I mean, really Santa Claus is a gift to the business community.

It’s the same, but as far as I’m concerned as, as a Christian priest, he sold out.

Santa have sold out This is about spending money.

This is about spending as much money as you can.

>> Six euros.

>> But is the public veneration of Saint Nicholas a faith, and is this the church of Santa?

I mean, it’s all very ritualistic.

We’re just asked to become children again, and believe that if we are good, we’ll be rewarded.

>> Five, four, three, two, one!

>> [SOUND] >> I would be disappointed if the worship of Santa was as close to faith as Europeans get.

>> But I wonder if the demise of religion has not been a tad exaggerated.

[MUSIC] I’m heading off to the land Land of the Sami, nomadic reindeer herders, now converted to Christianity.

[MUSIC] Their legends and way of life inspired much of the Santa Claus legend.

[SOUND] Would you look at that.

Look at that, Christmas carnull
191160.0CultureGrams
TM

World Edition
2022

Republic of

Lithuania

BACKGROUND

Land and Climate

Lithuania is larger than its Baltic neighbors, Latvia and

Estonia, and is slightly bigger than the U.S. state of West

Virginia. It lies on the western fringe of the east European

plain and has a short coastline on the Baltic Sea. It is a green

country with forests, rolling hills, and thousands of rivers and

lakes. The two longest rivers are the Nemunas and the Neris.

Forests cover about 35 percent of the country and are rich in

wild animals, mushrooms, and berries.

     Lithuania has four seasons. Summers are short and rainy,

and July temperatures average 63°F (17°C). Winters are cold

and snowy, with an average temperature in January of 23°F

(-5°C). In winter, children are allowed to stay home from

school when the temperature falls below -13°F (-25°C),

which generally happens at least once a year. The general

climate is comparable to that of southeastern Canada. A

westerly breeze is common.

History

Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Union with Poland

Lithuania’s first inhabitants arrived in the 10th millennium

BC. The first mention of Lithuania is found in a medieval

German manuscript, The Annals of Quedlinburg, in the early

11th century AD. Lithuanians began to form a distinct society

in the early second century. In the mid-1200s, a tribal leader

named Duke Mindaugas united several groups to form the

Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The new state grew in

prominence, especially during the 14th century, when it

annexed neighboring lands (including present-day Belarus,

Ukraine, and parts of Poland and Russia) and was ruled by

strong monarchs. During the 14th century, Lithuania was one

of the largest countries in Europe. Vilnius became the capital

in 1323.

     In 1386, reacting to a serious threat from Germanic

invaders, the Grand Duke Jogaila married the Polish crown

princess and became king. This alliance brought Lithuania

into a union with Poland, which strengthened the nations

enough to defeat the German (Teutonic) invaders in 1410;

this conflict was one of the biggest battles of the Middle

Ages. After its union with Poland, Lithuania, one of the last

pagan countries in Europe, adopted Roman Catholicism in

1387 and became increasingly open to Western culture.

Poland and Lithuania tightened their association in 1569

when they united under the Lublin Union and became the

Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

     Russian Rule and World War I

After the Polish-Lithuanian state was partitioned by its

neighbors (in 1772, 1793, and 1795), the Grand Duchy of

Lithuania was left largely a part of the Russian Empire, which

controlled Lithuania for more than 120 years. During this

time, Russia implemented a policy known as Russification, in

which it insisted that Lithuanians speak Russian and convert

to the Russian Orthodox Church. Many attempts were made

to regain independence from Russia, but all were

unsuccessful.

     During WorLithuania Culture, a literature review

1

Lithuania Culture, a literature review
5
Lithuania Culture, a literature review
Fredrick Dent
Cultural Anthropology
7/30/22

Background information
According to Vaičaitis, (10,2006) The Baltic Sea nation of Lithuania is a small one with a large Roman Catholic population. Russia’s Kaliningrad area of Kaliningrad shares a north-south border with Latvia, Belarus, and Poland. Most of Lithuania’s land is farmland or woodland, making it a relatively flat country. It covers an area of 24,200 square miles, 62,680 square kilometers (Pranskevičiūtė, 20-21). One of Europe’s final frontiers for Christianization, Lithuania was a somewhat backwards society. When Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania, accepted Poland’s crown in 1385, he vowed to subject his nation to Catholic baptism. The Catholic Church in Lithuania grew to be the largest and most prominent religious body as a result of the centuries-long unification of Lithuania and Poland. Polish-Lithuanian territory was divided in 1795, and most of present-day Lithuania was handed over to Russian control (Pranskevičiūtė, 21-22). In 1918, Lithuania was re-established as a sovereign state. The Soviet Union seized it in 1940, and it remained one of the Soviet Union’s 15 republics until 1990. The Lithuanian parliament has been a parliamentary democracy since the country’s reunification in 1990. 2004 saw its admission to the NATO alliance and the European Union. (Pranskevičiūtė, 22)
Lithuania’s Language use
The official language of the country is Lietuvi kalba. To put it simply, Lithuanian belongs to a group of Baltic languages that also includes Latvian and the extinct Yotvingian and Old Prussian dialects (Grincevičienė, 142-143) Ancient Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit influence can still be seen in its vocabulary. It wasn’t until the 19th century that Lithuanian became a standard language because Polish (and occasionally other languages) had been used as the official language from the 13th century (Grincevičienė, 143-144). The Lithuanian language was all but extinct by the 17th century, with the exception of a few rural peasants. Russian was introduced and supported among Lithuanians after 1795, when both Lithuania and Poland ceased to exist as independent states (Sinochkina,89-88). It was illegal to print or teach in Lithuanian between 1864 and 1904. However, during Lithuania’s years of independence (1918–40), the European nationalist movement inspired a rebirth of Lithuanian. Because Russian was restored in 1940, the majority of Lithuanians nowadays can speak the Russian language (Sinochkina,90). Lithuanian reclaimed its status as the country’s official language in 1988. As a result, Lithuanian is widely spoken today. Along with Russian and Lithuanian, Polish is a common second language here. In addition to English and German, there are many additional languages spoken in the world today. Dohrn, (Verena.155)
Religion
More than seven out of ten LLithuania Culture, a literature review

1

Lithuania Culture, a literature review

Fredrick Dent

Cultural Anthropology

7/30/22

Background information

According to Vaičaitis, (10,2006) The Baltic Sea nation of Lithuania is a

small one with a large Roman Catholic population. Russia’s Kaliningrad area of Kaliningrad

shares a north-south border with Latvia, Belarus, and Poland. Most of Lithuania’s land is

Fredrick Dent
90000004570807
what’s this?

Lithuania Culture, a literature review
2

farmland or woodland, making it a relatively flat country. It covers an area of 24,200 square

miles, 62,680 square kilometers (Pranskevičiūtė, 20-21). One of Europe’s final frontiers for

Christianization, Lithuania was a somewhat backwards society. When Jogaila, Grand Duke

of Lithuania, accepted Poland’s crown in 1385, he vowed to subject his nation to Catholic

baptism. The Catholic Church in Lithuania grew to be the largest and most prominent

religious body as a result of the centuries-long unification of Lithuania and Poland. Polish-

Lithuanian territory was divided in 1795, and most of present-day Lithuania was handed over

to Russian control (Pranskevičiūtė, 21-22). In 1918, Lithuania was re-established as a

sovereign state. The Soviet Union seized it in 1940, and it remained one of the Soviet

Union’s 15 republics until 1990. The Lithuanian parliament has been a parliamentary

democracy since the country’s reunification in 1990. 2004 saw its admission to the NATO

alliance and the European Union. (Pranskevičiūtė, 22)

Lithuania’s Language use

The official language of the country is Lietuvi kalba. To put it simply, Lithuanian belongs to

a group of Baltic languages that also includes Latvian and the extinct Yotvingian and Old

Prussian dialects (Grincevičienė, 142-143) Ancient Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit influence can

still be seen in its vocabulary. It wasn’t until the 19th century that Lithuanian became a

standard language because Polish (and occasionally other languages) had been used as the

official language from the 13th century (Grincevičienė, 143-144). The Lithuanian language

was all but extinct by the 17th century, with the exception of a few rural peasants. Russian

was introduced and supported among Lithuanians after 1795, when both Lithuania and

Poland ceased to exist as independent states (Sinochkina,89-88). It was illegal to print or

teach in Lithuanian between 1864 and 1904. However, during Lithuania’s years of

Fredrick Dent
90000004570807
where did you find this punctuation? Do you use Mac?

Fredrick Dent
90000004570807

Fredrick Dent
90000004570807
delete these types of phrases

Lithuania Culture, a literature review
3

independence (1918–40), the European nationalist movement inspired a rebirth of

Lithuanian. Because Russian was restored in 1940, the majority of Lithuanians nowadays can

speak the Russian language (Sinochkina,90). Lithuanian reclaimed its status as the country’s




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