This assignment has to done using what was written in wk3 so I have included it in the post my work and the remarks for the teacher the directions for the final paper is at the bottom need it by Friday Running head: CONDITIONING [AMW1]ClassicalConditioningLashandaGilyardAndreaWilsonPSY 331July 19,2013Conditioning 2Classical conditioning is theassociative learning process by which a neutral stimulus becomes conditioned,producing a conditioned response which is similar with the unconditioned [AMW2].A. Basic assumptionConditioning occurs if a contingentrelationship exists between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned [AMW3].B. AuthorsPavlov was the first to develop thetheory of classical conditioning when he discovered that the dogs he used forhis experiments responded to the sound of a ring bell in a similar way theywere responding to food presentation-that is- by salivating.C. [AMW4].Contingency is probably the mostimportant principle, as the conditioning only occurs if there is enough spatialand temporal closeness between the unconditioned stimulus and the neutralstimulus. On the other hand, frequency and intensity are variables that explainwhy some associative learning’s are stronger than others; if the neutral andthe unconditioned stimuli are presented close in space and time more often, theconditioned response should be stronger; if the unconditioned stimulus producea stronger unconditioned response, the conditioned response should also be [AMW5].D. ConditionsClassical conditioning cannot occur without asufficient previous experience with the unconditioned and neutral stimuli;however the experience does not need to be [AMW6].E. MaintenanceConditioning 3In some cases [AMW7]does not occur because the conditioned stimulus needs to be presented withoutthe unconditioned stimulus, and the intensity and frequency of theexposure–necessary for the extinction vary depending on several aspects.F. ApplicationClassical conditioning can be usedin a variety of settings. It is especially relevant for Clinical Psychology,and it is use for treating some types of anxiety disorders-especially phobias.OPERANT CONDITIONING This type of learning occurs throughrewardsand punishments[AMW8].[AMW9]. Operant conditioningoccurs when a behavior is associated with a given consequence.B. AuthorsB.F. Skinner was the first toexplain operant conditioning, using his theory for explaining a variety ofbehaviors. C. [AMW10]Discrimination explains whyindividuals exhibit some learned behaviors in some contexts and moments; somestimuli predict the possibility of receiving reinforcement, or a punishment.Therefore; differentiating amongcontexts helps individuals know when or when not to exhibit a certain type of behavior.D. Previous experienceConditioning 4 Learning by operant conditioning occurs only after a given behaviorwas reward or punished on one or more occasion; the previous experience has tobe conscious to a certain degree.E. Maintenance. An operant response is likelyto extinguish when that given behavior is no longer followed by specificconsequences, such as reward or punishment; on the other hand some behaviors donot extinguish, if the rewarding process was combined with some specificstrategies that encourage maintenance. F. Applications.Operant conditioning is very oftenused in Educational System. For example, it is common to apply negativepunishment on children who disrupt the class, by making them lose their recessrights. [AMW11]Encompassesa variety of frameworks- such as operant conditioning and vicarious learning-in which some mediating variables are introduced into the stimulus-responsemodel, such as cognitions and biological [AMW12].A. Basicdescription[AMW13].The theorybasic assumption is that conditioning learning is not merely an associationbetween stimuli and responses, but that abstract entities such as memory andcognition are involved during the process of learning.Conditioning 5B.Authors. E.C.Tolman challenged classical behaviorism when he introduce the concept of‘’purpose behavior’’, that is a behavior directed toward a goal. C.L. Hull andSkinner also contributed greatly to the new behavioral paradigm, C.ApplicationNeobehaviorist principles are applied in avariety of settings, especially clinical psychology, education and economy.Conditioning 6[AMW14]Hughes,Claire (2011). Hughes, Claire. (2011) Social Understanding and Social Lives.New York, Ny: Psychology Press.Thisparticular book belongs to the field of Developmental Psychology, it is alsouseful for a better understanding of the vicarious/observational learning, asit seems that this type of learning play a significant role in the ontogeny.Miltenberger,R. G. “Behavioral Modification: Principles and Procedures”. Thomson/Wadsworth, 2008.All theories and frameworks within the field ofBehavioral Science are covered in this [AMW15].It is a useful source for a global understanding of classical conditioning,operant conditioning, vicarious learning and Applied Behaviorism.WilliamH. Sandholm (2008). “Learning and evolution in games: an overview,” TheNew PalgraveDictio^ * Faruk Gul (2008). “behavioral economics and game theory,”The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, 2nd Edition.[AMW16]This is an article about behavioraleconomics. An outline of behavioral research, where the links betweenbehavioral processes and economic results are revealed. The article overviewthe literature within the field of behavioral economics, describing thescientific finding and possible applications.Schacter,Daniel L (2009). PSYCHOLOGY. CatherineConditioning 7ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCESAbook ofintroductory psychology[AMW17],which include a general overview of behaviorist concepts and a language that isaccessible for students Shettleworth,S. J. (2010). Cognition, Evolution and Behavior (2nd Ed), New York: Oxford.This book integrates findings from psychology,behavioral ecology and ethology. It helps the reader understand some basicscientific assumptions about the interaction between biology, cognition and the environment; many of theprocesses explained throughout the book are linked with several concepts ofneobehavorism.[AMW18]Psychology ofLearning.SanDiego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. [AMW1]Lashanda,you seem to be using subtopics for each learning theory that are somewhatdifferent from the 6 subtopics that were presented in the assignmentdirections. It appears that even though your subtopics are different, you areaddressing some of the required content for each area. As you work on your final paper, be sure thatyou are fully developing the content of each subtopic to fully address theheadings that were presented in the outline directions.You are off to an adequate start with youroutline. However, your submission is incomplete. There are 6 specificsubsections that must be included for each of the 3 learning theories. Youroutline does not cover all subsections as required. In addition, many of thereferences you have included with the outline do not meet the specificrequirements listed in the assignment directions. Please refer to the commentsbelow for more information and guidance as you develop your final paper forthis course.Late submission excused. [AMW2]Whatis the source for this statement? Remember that citations are required even inan outline. [AMW3]Thissection will need significantly more development in the final paper. [AMW4]Whatabout concepts such as US, CS, UR/CR? These must be fully explained in orderfor this section to be clear for the reader. Do not assume that the reader has a pre-existing understanding of thematerial. [AMW5]Citationsfor this section? [AMW6]Thisstatement is unclear. What is your basisfor this claim? [AMW7]Youhave not explained what this is. [AMW8]Rememberto address both the positive and negative versions of each. [AMW9]Whyis this section needed? This does not match the structure you provided forclassical conditioning above. [AMW10]Thissection will also need substantially more content in the final paper. Also, be sure to connect your work to yoursources by providing citations. [AMW11]Thissection is incomplete as all 6 required subtopics have not been addressed. [AMW12]Citation? [AMW13]Again,you are varying the organization and content of your outline. Every section should be consistent in thisparticular outline (see the assignment directions). [AMW14]Checkall references for alignment with proper APA format. Most of your sourceslisted here do not meet the requirements specified in the assignment directionsfor this outline or for the final paper. Please be sure you are using a minimum of 5 sources (research articlespublished within the last 5 years) from peer-reviewed, scholarly journals. Youcan use additional sources that are supplemental to the mandatory 5 journalarticles. [AMW15]Thisis not a peer-reviewed, research article from a journal which is required forthis assignment and the final paper. Youcan include this as a supplemental source; however, the 5 mandatory sourcesmust meet the specific requirements provided in the assignment directions. [AMW16]It’sunclear if this is an appropriate source for this assignment or the finalpaper. Be sure all sources meet thespecifications in the directions. [AMW17]Notappropriate for this assignment. Can be a supplemental source in the finalpaper. [AMW18]Doesnot meet the requirements of the assignment or the final paper. It can be a supplemental source.Final Paper The Final Paper will explain, compare, and contrast the major principles associated with classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and neobehaviorism. Include each element below in your explanation of each of the three theories:Describe the major principles associated with each theory.Explain the contributions of the major theorists who worked to develop each theory.Explain how each theory accounts for the mental processes associated with learning.Summarize how each theory makes use of prior experience in explaining how people learn.Describe how each theory explains how permanent change in behavior takes place.Apply each theory to a real-world learning environment (e.g., schools, treatment facilities, businesses, social activities).Your Final Paper must be eight to ten pages in length, not including the title and references pages. Your work should demonstrate your understanding of the reading assignments, class discussions, and your own research, as well as illustrate the application of the learning theories to an educational learning environment. You must utilize at least five scholarly, peer-reviewed sources that were published within the past five years and are formatted according to APA guidelines as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Visit the Ashford University Library databases to locate scholarly sources. You will be evaluated on the quality of your analysis of the principles of learning, your ability to analyze and incorporate scholarly sources, the quality of the peer-reviewed sources chosen, your writing skills, and the appropriate use of APA style. Writing the Final Paper The Final Paper:1. Must be eight to ten double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. 2. Must include a title page with the following:a. Title of paper b. Student’s name c. Course name and number d. Instructor’s name e. Date submitted
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